# Introduction to Scuba Diving in Hawaii
Scuba diving is one of the most popular ocean activities in Hawaii and draws visitors from all over the world. With warm, clear waters, incredible marine life, and stunning coral reefs surrounding the islands, it's easy to see why Hawaii is considered one of the world's top scuba destinations.
The history of scuba diving in Hawaii can be traced back to the 1950s and 1960s when pioneers like Jacques Cousteau brought early scuba gear to the islands to document the previously unseen depths. Since then, scuba diving has exploded in popularity and become a can't-miss activity for travelers hoping to explore Hawaii's magnificent underwater world.
Today, hundreds of thousands of divers flock to Hawaii each year. The state offers truly world-class diving for all skill levels. From beginners looking to get certified to advanced divers wanting to embark on more technical dives, Hawaii has something for everyone. The variety of dive sites provide opportunities to see everything from sea turtles and reef sharks to schools of vibrant tropical fish. For many divers, scuba diving in Hawaii is the experience of a lifetime.
## Best Scuba Diving Locations in Hawaii
Hawaii offers some of the world's most spectacular and diverse scuba diving thanks to its unique geography and marine ecosystems. Popular dive locations include:
### Kona Coast
The Kona coast on the Big Island features calm, clear waters perfect for beginner divers along with challenging drift dives for experienced divers. Top sites include Puako coral gardens, Turtle Pinnacle where green sea turtles abound, and Pine Trees where manta rays congregate at night.
### Kohala Coast
The Kohala coastline is home to Hawaii's best marine preserves and underwater ecosystems. Must-dive spots are Pauoa Bay with its extensive coral reefs and Sea Mountain teeming with tropical fish like parrotfish, moray eels, and octopuses hiding in crevices.
### Molokini Crater
This crescent-shaped crater off Maui is a protected marine sanctuary brimming with over 250 species of fish and coral. The crater's unique shape makes for excellent visibility to observe reef sharks, manta rays, and hawksbill turtles.
### Hanauma Bay
Located right outside Waikiki on Oahu, Hanauma Bay offers easy access to a stunning circular bay fringed by palm trees. An abundance of green sea turtles and Hawaii's state fish, the humuhumunukunukuapua'a, can be spotted here.
### WWII Wrecks
Sunken WWII vessels like the Mahi shipwreck off Oahu and the San Pedro wreck offshore from Maui provide opportunities to dive historical sites while encountering tropical fish that now call the wrecks home. Advanced certification is required.
With its underwater caves, lava tubes, pristine coral reefs, abundant sea life, and historical wreck sites, Hawaii truly offers world-class scuba diving adventures.
## Unique Hawaiian Marine Life
The Hawaiian islands are home to an incredibly diverse array of marine life. Many species are found nowhere else on Earth. The warm, nutrient-rich waters allow coral reefs to thrive and support a complex ecosystem. Here are some of the unique animals you may see while scuba diving in Hawaii:
### Endemic Hawaiian Fish
- **Humphead wrasse** - These huge fish can grow over 6 feet long. Their thick lips allow them to crush and eat coral.
- **Flame wrasse** - Found only in Hawaii, these small, brilliantly colored fish feature a fiery red-orange body with a bright yellow tail.
- **Masked angelfish** - Distinguished by a black "mask" across their face, these fish are endemic to Hawaii. They feed on sponges growing on the reef.
- **Saddle wrasse** - Males have a brilliant blue-green saddle behind their head, while females are yellow-orange. An endemic Hawaiian species.
Hawaii boasts over 60 types of coral, including unique species like **cauliflower coral** which resembles its namesake vegetable. Thick beds of endemic **rice coral** give shelter to fish. **Pink rice coral** adds a splash of color.
### Sea Turtles
**Green sea turtles** and **hawksbill turtles** are frequently seen in Hawaii's waters. They munch on algae growing on coral and come ashore to lay their eggs. Hawaii's waters provide critical habitat.
### Manta Rays
**Giant oceanic manta rays** migrate to Hawaii to be cleaned by small fish. With wingspans up to 23 feet, divers flock to spots like Manta Heaven off Maui's coast to see these majestic, acrobatic creatures.
**Spinner dolphins** put on a show leaping and twirling through the air off islands like Oahu and Lanai. Hawaii's waters provide important resting habitat. **Bottlenose dolphins** also frequently interact with divers.
From December to May, **humpback whales** migrate from Alaska to mate and birth calves in Hawaii's warm waters. Divers may hear their haunting songs. Breathtaking views are possible if given proper distance.
The diversity of Hawaiian marine life makes it a scuba diver's paradise. Many species found in these waters occur nowhere else on Earth.
## Best Times of Year for Diving
The best time for scuba diving in Hawaii depends on what you want to see and experience. Here's an overview of the seasonal conditions:
- **Winter (December-March)** - This is peak whale watching season, as hundreds of humpback whales migrate to Hawaii to mate and give birth. The water is a bit cooler at 72-78°F on average. Visibility is 50-100 feet depending on location.
- **Spring (April-June)** - As the whales depart, the mantas arrive in spring and early summer. Visibility improves to 100+ feet. Water temperatures warm to 78-84°F.
- **Summer (July-September)** - This is the busiest season. Warm summer waters of 78-86°F draw huge numbers of snorkelers and divers. Visibility remains excellent at 100-150 feet.
- **Fall (October-November)** - With fewer crowds and smaller swells, fall is ideal for beginner divers. Temperatures cool a bit but remain balmy at 75-82°F on average. Visibility ranges from 75-125 feet.
The big marine life highlights are humpback whales in winter and manta rays in spring/summer. But incredible reef diving can be found year-round in Hawaii. Planning your scuba adventure during the season that offers the marine life encounters and conditions you prefer will help you have an amazing experience.
## Required Gear and Costs
Scuba diving requires some specialized equipment that you'll need to rent or buy. The basic gear includes:
A mask enables you to see clearly underwater. Look for a comfortable, leak-free mask with tempered glass lenses. Expect to pay $50-100 for a good quality mask.
Fins attach to your feet and provide propulsion through the water. Opt for open-heel fins with adjustable straps to get the right fit. Fins cost around $80-150.
A snorkel allows you to breathe while swimming face down. A good snorkel has a contoured mouthpiece and purge valve to clear water out. Basic snorkels cost $30-60.
Wetsuits keep you warm in cool water temperatures. Look for a full suit with appropriate thickness and tight seals. Plan on spending $100-300 for a quality wetsuit.
A buoyancy control device (BCD) is a vest with an inflatable bladder to control buoyancy. Get one with plenty of pocket storage. Expect to pay $200-500.
Regulators adjust tank air to the ambient pressure and deliver breathable air. They cost around $200-500 for a set of octopus and primary regulators.
### Dive Computers
Dive computers monitor depth, time and ascent rate to avoid decompression sickness. Prices range from $250-1000.
In total, a full set of scuba gear can cost $1000-2000 to buy. It's often cheaper to rent equipment especially for short trips. Rental costs range from $30-50 per day.
## Top Dive Operators
Hawaii is home to many excellent dive operators located across the various islands. Here are some of the most reputable and highly reviewed operators to consider for your dive trip:
- **Atlantis Adventures** - Operating out of Waikiki, Atlantis offers guided boat dives, night dives, and PADI courses. They have friendly and experienced instructors and run trips to many top Oahu dive sites.
- **Hawaii Scuba Diving** - Based on the south shore in Honolulu, this operator offers boat and shore dives, as well as scuba certification classes. Groups are small and guides are knowledgeable about finding the best marine life.
- **Maui Dive Shop** - One of the most popular dive shops on Maui with locations in Kihei and Lahaina. Offers scuba trips, snorkeling, reef tours, night dives, and gear rental. Known for skilled instructors and diving Molokini Crater.
- **Mike Severns Diving** - Operating out of Kihei, Mike Severns provides personalized guided dives to Maui's top sites. Professional, small-group scuba and freediving tours offered. Great option for personalized service.
- **Bubbles Below Scuba Charters** - Highly reviewed dive boat operating out of Port Allen. Offers trips to popular south shore dive sites as well as certification courses. Crew is friendly and provides underwater photography/videography.
- **Jack's Diving Locker** - One of the most well-established Kauai dive shops located in Lawai. Offers boat dives, night dives, shore dives, and PADI certification courses. Professional instructors and small group sizes.
### Big Island
- **Blue Dolphin Charters** - Offers a variety of scuba and snorkel tours out of Keauhou Bay. Dives include manta ray night dives, cavern diving, and trips to popular sites like Red Hill.
- **Body Glove Cruises** - Provides boat scuba trips, snorkeling adventures, and scuba certification classes out of Kailua-Kona. Stops include snorkeling with wild dolphins in Kealakekua Bay.
## Safety Considerations
Scuba diving in Hawaii comes with some unique safety considerations that every diver should be aware of. The ocean conditions, marine life, and natural elements require attentiveness and precaution.
Hawaii is known for having very strong currents. It's critical to know the tides and currents before diving to avoid getting swept away. Always dive with a buddy and stay oriented to maintain control. Drift diving can be an exciting experience if properly prepared. Listen closely to the dive operator's current assessment and recommendations.
Large surf is common, especially on north shores. Check wave forecasts and avoid diving at exposed entry and exit points during high surf advisories. Giant waves can capsize boats and create additional hazards.
### Boat Traffic
Hawaii has heavy boat traffic from tour operators, fishing charters, large barges, and cruise ships. Be wary of busy harbors and channels. Ascend slowly and deploy a safety sausage to remain visible. Avoid diving in known boat lanes whenever possible.
### Sun Exposure
The Hawaiian sun can be intense. Use reef-safe sunscreen and wear a rashguard to prevent burns and skin damage during long periods at the surface. Stay hydrated and seek shade on the boat between dives.
Box jellyfish and Portuguese man o' war are present in Hawaii's waters. Stings are painful and can be dangerous. Wear a full wetsuit and watch for jellyfish near shore. Vinegar can help neutralize stinging cells if contact occurs.
Moray and dragon eels reside in holes and crevices. Give them space, don't reach into dark areas, and be cautious at night when they are more active. While eels are not aggressive, they will bite if startled or provoked.
### Shark Encounters
Shark sightings are common in Hawaii though extremely rare attacks have occurred. Sharks are apex predators and their behavior is unpredictable. Stay calm, avoid sudden movements, and don't provoke sharks. Consider taking a shark deterrent device if concerned.
## Certification and Training
Scuba diving requires proper certification and training for safety. For beginners looking to dive in Hawaii, there are a few options:
- Discover Scuba Diving - This is an introductory course that does not provide full certification, but allows you to dive under supervision of an instructor on a beginner dive site. It typically involves learning basic skills in a pool or confined water setting, then completing a shallow open water dive.
- Open Water Diver Certification - This is the most common entry-level certification that allows you to dive independently within limits. Courses generally include classroom learning, confined water skills training, and 4 open water training dives. This certification allows diving to 60 feet.
- Advanced Open Water Diver - This is the next step up after open water certification. It requires 5 adventure dives that focus on specific skills like deeper diving, navigation, night diving etc. This certification allows diving to 100 feet.
For beginners planning to dive in Hawaii, an Open Water Certification is recommended at minimum. This allows you to access most recreational dive sites. An Advanced Open Water Certification opens up more options like manta ray night dives. But Open Water is sufficient for many incredible Hawaii dive experiences.
Regardless of your initial certification, it's always wise to start slow and build experience gradually. Hawaii's waters can have strong currents and surges that require comfort underwater. Take a refresher course if you haven't dived in awhile. Dive conservatively within your limits. And closely follow your instructor's or divemaster's directions. With proper training, Hawaii's underwater world promises amazing adventures.
## Conservation Efforts
Hawaii's delicate marine ecosystems face numerous threats including pollution, habitat destruction, and overfishing. Thankfully, there are many conservation efforts focused on preserving Hawaii's precious underwater habitats and protecting its diverse marine life.
Several non-profit organizations lead the charge in promoting sustainable and responsible scuba diving practices in Hawaii. For example, Malama Kai Foundation operates reef clean-ups and offers educational programs to visiting divers on minimizing environmental impact. They advocate following strict buoyancy control to avoid damaging coral and encourage dive operators to limit the number of dives on popular sites.
Another great initiative is Hawaii's Green Sea Turtle Project which rehabilitates injured turtles and coordinates volunteers to monitor turtle nesting sites. The project helps raise awareness and protect endangered green sea turtles that frequent Hawaii's waters. Citizen scientists can get involved in collecting data and safeguarding critical turtle habitat.
Eco-friendly dive shops in Hawaii like Jack's Diving Locker offer dive trips focused on marine conservation. They organize dives to remove invasive algae species that threaten native coral reefs. Some shops also coordinate diving volunteer projects to help restore damaged reefs through coral propagation practices.
Visiting divers keen to give back can search volunteer databases like Volunteer Hawaii for upcoming conservation events happening during their stay. Hands-on programs like Reef Teach allow divers to get immersed in marine science fieldwork. The Coral Reef Alliance also offers dive volunteer eco-trips to restore coral ecosystems across Hawaii.
By supporting sustainable tourism practices, following safe diving guidelines, and participating in conservation volunteer work, divers can help preserve Hawaii's natural wonder for future generations. The efforts ensure visitors continue enjoying Hawaii's breathtaking underwater scenery while protecting its fragile aquatic inhabitants.
## Planning Your Dive Trip
Planning a scuba diving trip to Hawaii takes some preparation but is worth the effort once you're immersed in the underwater world. Here are some tips for booking, packing, and preparing for your Hawaiian dive vacation:
### Booking Tips
- Book well in advance, as popular diving spots can book up months ahead of time.
- Look for deals on package deals that combine airfare, hotels, and diving.
- Ask about group discounts if diving with friends or family.
- Inquire about cancellation and change policies in case your plans shift.
### Packing List
Be sure to pack the following:
- Swimsuit and rashguard
- Waterproof sunscreen and lip balm
- Dive certification card
- Log book
- Mask, snorkel, fins, boots, and gloves if you have your own gear
- Motion sickness and seasickness medication if prone to nausea
### Travel Insurance
- Consider travel insurance that would cover you for diving accidents or cancelled trips. Read the fine print to ensure scuba diving is covered.
- Divers Alert Network (DAN) provides dive accident insurance policies specifically for divers.
**Do I need to be certified to scuba dive in Hawaii?** Yes, you need to hold at least an open water diving certification to dive in Hawaii. Various certification courses are available on the islands.
**What months are best to dive in Hawaii?** The calm summer months of May through October offer optimal underwater visibility. Late fall through spring brings rougher, rainier weather.
**What's the water temperature?** Expect warm 78-84°F water year round. A 3mm wetsuit is sufficient for most divers.
**Can I fly after diving?** You must wait 12-24 hours after your last scuba dive before flying due to risk of decompression illness. Plan dive trips accordingly.
Properly preparing for your Hawaiian dive vacation will help ensure an unforgettable trip filled with incredible underwater encounters. Do your research, make reservations, and pack well ahead of time. With the pristine reefs and abundant marine life, Hawaii offers world-class scuba diving for all levels.